THE TUNGUSKA METEORITE OF XXI PROBLEM ON THE THRESHOLD CENTURY.
The author Dr. A. E. Zlobin is head of division at the Central Institute of Aviation Motors, CIAM, 2, Aviamotornaya St., 111250, Moscow, Russia. Member of an expedition to Tunguska region (1988).
A gigantic explosion which shook Central Siberia more then 85 years ago continues to stir minds. What cosmic body burst into the earth's atmosphere on the early morning of June 30, 1908? What is the nature of the colossal energy it released?
This popular scientific booklet is intended to inform the reader about unresolved problems of the Tunguska meteorite. A new hypothesis for the explanation of the gigantic explosion is proposed.
The author is sure that ultra low temperature of the cometary nucleus could explain main features of the Tunguska explosion. He realized the computer modelling of the temperature distribution into the nucleus of a comet with long orbital period. It was shown that the temperature of the cometary nucleus centre not exceed — 270 °C (3 K) during all orbital period. Therefore, the solution of the Tunguska problem is based on the assumption, that there was a cometary nucleus matter properties singularity. For example: high conductivity of the cometary nucleus matter.
According to this concept, destruction pattern of the cometary nucleus in the atmosphere have to be intricate. Some new mechanisms of destruction are discussed. Among them: high magnetic field generation by means of magnetic flux cumulation during progressive breaking of the meteoroid; electromagnetic energy accumulation in a volume of fireball; electromagnetic explosion of the cometary nucleus matter; magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects of explosion in magnetic field of the earth presence. Some other mechanisms of destruction are discussed too. Examples of other matter properties singularity are presented.
The author consider that only electromagnetic nature of explosion could explain such features of the Tunguska event as MHD-structure anomaly of the forest fall so-called "butterfly", local geomagnetic storm which was registered in Irkutsk (970 km), reversal of soil magnetization, and hign energy concentration of explosion (total energy of explosion corresponded to 30 — 50 mega-tonnes of a TNT blast). Interaction between meteoroid and magnetic field of the earth could explain trajectory form with azimuth manoeuvre in the atmosphere. It is quite possible that the forest fall so-cailed "eastern" — a result of ballistic wave caustic.
The main conclusion is that Tunguska new comet arrived into Solar system from interstellar space. Initial position of the Tunguska comet was inside of cloud of comets. Moreover, the author consider that cloud of comets has a spiral structure. And the Tunguska event is only a sample of general mechanism which determines solar activity. This mechanism is a bombing of Sun surface with comets taken by Jupiter gravitation from spiral cloud of comets.